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Compatibility of metals with hydrogen gas

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Thijs de Groot, HyCC





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Hydrogen Embrittlement, also known as Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
Matjaž Matošec

Compatibility of metals with hydrogen gas

As hydrogen becomes more prominent in the portfolio of technologies for reducing carbon emissions, more attention has been directed towards its safe transport, storage, and end use. Most hazard scenarios involve the unintended release of hydrogen, which can result from improper design, assembly, or operation of hydrogen containment systems. One important aspect of design is the selection of materials, particularly those comprising the pressure boundaries of hydrogen containment components. From the perspective of unintended hydrogen release, materials selection is focused on two particular concerns related to hydrogen ingress: 1) hydrogen permeation rates in materials, which dictate the leak rates through pressure boundaries, and 2) the potential for hydrogen to degrade the mechanical properties of materials, which can lead to failure of pressure boundaries and sudden release of hydrogen. This article focuses on the second concern, and more specifically on the hydrogen-induced degradation of metals. In gaseous hydrogen environments at near-ambient temperatures, failure resulting from hydrogen-induced degradation of metals is typically referred to as ‘hydrogen embrittlement’.

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LNG carrier
Matjaž Matošec

Industrial perspective on liquid hydrogen valves

Storage and transportation of hydrogen in liquid state offers several advantages. Liquid hydrogen (LH₂) has a higher density and requires a lower storage pressure compared to gaseous hydrogen. However, hydrogen turns into liquid at -253°C, which brings its own challenges. The very low temperature as well as the risk of flammability make it a challenging medium. Stringent safety measures and reliability are thus a must when designing valves for this application.

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Hydrogen cylinder
Matjaž Matošec

Hydrogen cylinders: design, testing and certification

The cylinder plays a crucial role in the application of gaseous hydrogen. It is indispensable, regardless of whether it is used for stationary applications, mobile storage during transportation, or at the vehicle level. The search for a product that offers sufficient storage capacity and is constructed in a way that ensures safe handling of hydrogen is an ongoing process.

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Green H2 from renewable energy sources
Matjaž Matošec

Electrolysis technologies and LCOH: current state and prospects for 2030

Water electrolysis (WE) is key to decarbonising hard-to-abate industries such as fertilizers and steel. Four main technologies – alkaline (AWE), proton exchange membrane (PEM), solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC), and anion exchange membrane (AEM) – can be found in the market, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. This article provides a short review of these technologies and analyses their impact on the levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH).

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Hydrogen Tech World is a comprehensive knowledge platform dedicated to advancing and promoting the latest technology along the hydrogen production and distribution chain. With a global community of researchers, engineers, procurement officers, project managers, equipment manufacturers, systems integrators, engineering companies, fabricators and end users, Hydrogen Tech World is a powerful network for information exchange and knowledge transfer. Members are kept fully updated via regular newsletters while the open website provides instant, unrestricted access to a wealth of technical data, news updates, project, expert insights, etc. Scheduled for April 2023, the Hydrogen Tech World Expo & Conference in Essen will be a technology-focussed event. There, visitors will be able to see and discuss the very latest products and services available to facilitate the mainstream usage of hydrogen as an energy carrier and a fuel.